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|Complete Slide Set Index
- Overview of the Earth
- SLIDE #3: Global map, showing continents and ocean basins.
- Oceans and Contients
- SLIDE #4: Tectonic element map of North America.
- SLIDE #5: Geological time table.
- Tthe Lithprobe Project
- SLIDE #6: Map showing the national extent of participation in LITHOPROBE.
- SLIDE #7: Graph showing the collaboration of the various earth-science disciplines in the LITHOPROBE project.
- Probing the Deepest Secrets of our Continent
- SLIDE #8: Cartoon showing the subduction of an oceanic plate under a continental plate.
- SLIDE #9: Global map of major tectonic plates.
- SLIDE #10: Sidescan of ocean floor off Vancouver Island.
- SLIDE #11: Cross section through the lithosphere of the west coast.
- Earthquakes and Volcanoes
- A Growing Ocean
- SLIDE #12: Topography of the Atlantic Ocean and surrounding continents.
- SLIDE #13: Map depicting the relationship between surface geological units (named segments) and underlying, deep crustal blocks (coloured).
- SLIDE #14: Seismic cross section line 86-2 illustrates the relationship of overlying rocks to the underlying crustal blocks. Upper portion shows seismic data; lower portion is an interpretation of the same data.
- The Growth of Canada
- SLIDE #15: Tectonic map of North America.
- The Pecambrian Heartland
- SLIDE #16: Geological time table.
- SLIDE #17: Tectonic elements of North America, with the sedimentary cover removed.
- Archean Cratons -- Real Oldtimers: A Short Primer on How Geological Times are Crystal Clear
- SLIDE #18: Mass spectrometer.
- SLIDE #19: Zircon crystal. Image is from a scanning electron microscope. Red shades show high uranium content; green shades show low uranium content.
- Proterozoic Times Stitch Large Quilt
- SLIDE #20: Tectonic elements of North America, with the sedimentary cover removed.
- SLIDE #21: Tectonic provinces of the North Atlantic region.
- SLIDE #22: Total magnetic field map of the ECSOOT region showing relationship of magnetic images to tectonic features.
- SLIDE #23: Tectonic elements of North America, with the sedimentary cover removed.
- SLIDE #24:
Geological map of the exposed Early Proterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen between the Archean
Superior craton to the southeast and Archean Hearne craton to the northwest.
- SLIDE #25: A geological cross-section showing the principal tectonostratigraphic units of the Trans-Hudson Orogen. It is based on seismic reflection profiles (whose locations, lines 2, 3, and 9, were shown in the previous slide), as well as on geological information obtained at the surface and from drill cores, and on potential field maps. The stippled lines indicate in schematic fashion the dip and the frequency of seismic reflections.
- SLIDE #26: Tectonic elements of western Canada. Dark blue lines denote seismic reflection profiles and the dashed red line shows the northern limit of sedimentary cover.
- SLIDE #27: Aeromagnetic potential field map of western Canada. White lines denote seismic reflection profiles.
- SLIDE #28: Tectonic domains in the basement of Alberta and northeastern British Columbia. These maps were
imaged from the interpretation of potential field data (aeromagnetics) and geochronological analyses
(uranium-lead isotopes) of drill cores taken from the basement rock.
- SLIDE #29: The Slave-Rae collision.
- SLIDE #30: Showing the relative movements of the Rae, Superior and HEarne cratons to each other, mostly in the Trans-Hudson domain, but also in parts of Alberta.
- SLIDE #31: Oblique Rae-Hearne collision.
- The Completion of the Canadian Shield -- 1,000 Ma Ago
- SLIDE #32: Tectonic elements of North America,
- SLIDE #33: Outcrop at Georgian Bay.
- SLIDE #34: Deep seismic reflections from the Grenvill Front Tectonic Zone.
- SLIDE #35: Location of GLIMPCE seismic reflection profiles.
- SLIDE #36: Line diagram and simplified model based on reflection data along the eastern par of profile J.
- SLIDE #37: Tectonic elements of North America.
- SLIDE #38: Geological map for western Ontario showing subprovince divisions of the Superior province and planned seismic lines.
- SLIDE #39: Locations of Abitibi and its surrounding subprovinces and the Grenville Province within the Canadian Shield.
- SLIDE #40: Schematic geological map of the Abitibi greenstone belt and surrounding geological features.
- SLIDE #41: Generalized geological map of the Kapuskasing Structural Zone (KSZ) and surrounding region.
- SLIDE #42: Cross section of Kapuskasing Structural Zone.
- SLIDE #43: Aeromagnetic map with colour-shaded relief, set parallel to Matachewan dykes to suppress the dyke signature and empasize local structure.
- SLIDE #41: Generalized geological map of the K
apuskasing Structural Zone (KSZ) and surrounding region.
- SLIDE #42: Cross section of Kapuskasing Structural Zone.
- SLIDE #43: Aeromagnetic map with colour-shaded relief, set parallet to Matachewan dykes to suppress the dyke signature and emphasize the structure. White lines show seismic reflection profiles.
- SLIDE #44: Location of LITHOPROBE geophysical profiles on a simplified geological map of the Great Lakes regions.
- SLIDE #45: Seismic record section of the central portion of line F. The prominent layering of the syn-rift deposits between 10 and 30 km depth are shown clearly.
- SLIDE #46: Stylized model of the upper crustal velocity structure along profile A. HZ-Hinge zone; IRF-Isle Royale fault; KF-Keweenaw fault; SS-Superior Shoals. Note the vertical exaggeration of 3:1.
- SLIDE #47: Gravity map for Lake Superior and surrounding regions. Note the strong positive contrast of the rift
valley to its surrounding rocks. The reason for the positive anomaly was not understood until the results
of our studies in the Great Lakes - the large volume of dense volcanics in the rift valley causes the
anomaly. Data compilation and plotting by the Geophysics Division of the GSC (Geological Survey of
- SLIDE #48: Aeromagnetic map for the Lake Superior and surrounding regions.
- North America Grows Young or How Young America Grew
- SLIDE #49:
Simplified tectonic element map of North America with transects marked. The boxes outline the areas
in which LITHOPROBE is studying some of the major features we have discussed. Soon we’ll be
considering the LE (for LITHOPROBE East) region.
- Appalachia, You Still Look Beautiful!
- SLIDE #50: Geological Time Scale
- SLIDE #49: Simplified tectonic element map of North America.
- SLIDE #51: Base map of the Newfoundlan Appalachians showing tectonostratigraphic zonation, simplified surface geology, and the location of the three seismic reflection corridors (numbered black lines) used by LITHOPROBE
- SLIDE #52: Interpretative cartoon of the final stage of the collision between the Laurentian and Gondwanan plates.
- The Growing West
- SLIDE #53: Map of the Canadian portion of the North American Cordillera that indicates the collage of accreted terranes.
- SLIDE #54: Subduction of the oceanic Juan de Fuca plate under Vancouver Island.
- SLIDE #55: Central portion of regional cross section through the Southern Cordillera.
- Lithoprobe Tools and Methods
- Seismic Reflection Surveys
- SLIDE #56: Seismic refletion method. Vibroseis sound service source with geophone spread.
- SLIDE #57: A Vibroseis crew at work in Ontario. Four Vibroseis (sound source) trucks in the foreground; two recording trucks in the background.
- SLIDE #58: Vibroseis truck in action. Note the wheels are lifted off the ground and all the weight of the truck is on the vibrating pad.
- SLIDE #59: Marine seismic reflection survey, a schematic with a representative seismic section.
- SLIDE #60: Working at the LITHOPROBE Seismic Processing Facility.
- SLIDE #61: LITHOPROBE's director discusses a seismic cross section with fellow scientists at U.B.C.
- Seismic Refraction and Wide-Angle Reflection Surveys
- SLIDE #62: Schematic of seismic refraction technique.
- SLIDE #63: Refraction seismometer (cylinder) and recording seismograph being deployed during field program.
- SLIDE #64: Portable refraction seismograph and field service unit used for setting all recording parameters, retrieving seismograph memory plus analysis and display of data in the field. A basic field service unit includes a portable computer, printer, and satellite-tuned clock. It serves up to 30 portable refraction seismograph instruments.
- Gravity and Magnetic Studies
- SLIDE #65: Gravity method of exploration.
- SLIDE #66: Gravity data express denisty variation in the crust.
- SLIDE #67: Magnetic method of exploration.,
- SLIDE #68: An aeromagnetic map covering the Kapuskasing Structural Zone.
- Electromagnetic Geophysics
- SLIDE #69: Electromagnetic measurements reveal conductive (yellow) and resistive (greens) subsurface layers.
- Heat Flow and Geothermal Studies (found in SLIDE #69)
- Geological Mapping
- SLIDE #70: Geological field work provides the foundation for all other LITHOPROBE surveys.
- SLIDE #71: Geological map of eastern Labrador, showing the Grenville and Makkovik Provinces. The bottom
inset shows major structural zones in relation to other LITHOPROBE transects studying the
Grenville Province elsewhere. The top inset illustrates correlations between the Makkovik Province
and the related Ketilidian Mobile Belt of Greenland.
- Structural Geology
- SLIDE #72: Structural geology captures the dynamics of a geological setting.
- Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology
- SLIDE #73: Thin section of an olivine mineral. Olivine is one of the main constituents of the upper mantle.
- Stratgraphy and Sedimentology
- SLIDE #74: Stratigraphic cross section of sedimentary basin formation.
- SLIDE #75: Boreholes drilled by oil companies have yielded a wealth of data from the WCSB.
- SLIDE #76: A triangular (or ternary) diagram used to plot the chemical analysis of igneous rocks.
- SLIDE #77: Minerals used in high-precision geochronological dating. Biotites (black mica) to left, zircons (clear) in centre, and hornblende (greenish) to right.
- SLIDE #78: Computer plot of results of U-Pb analyses of zircons from a granite in N. Labrador. Each ellipse represents one analysis with its associated errors.
- SLIDE #79: An example from Newfoundland. Isn example from Newfoundland. Isotopic results from late orogenic
and post-orogenic, granitoid plutons. The yellow dots show where
plutons were derived from the mantle (i.e. very deep). The black dots
show where plutons were formed by melting of crustal (deep) and
supra-crustal (shallow) rocks.
- SLIDE #80: A mass spectrometer allows precise measurements of isotopes contained in minerals. Their ratios
determine their age.
- Paleomagnetism (found in SLIDE #80)
- Physical Properties of Rocks (found in SLI
- Summary on Earth-Science Disciplines (found in SLI