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Lithoprobe Tools and Methods
Seismic Reflection Surveys
Seismic refletion method. Vibroseis sound service source with geophone spread. A Vibroseis crew at work in Ontario. Four Vibroseis (sound source) trucks in the foreground; two recording trucks in the background. Vibroseis truck in action. Note the wheels are lifted off the ground and all the weight of the truck is on the vibrating pad. Marine seismic reflection survey, a schematic with a representative seismic section.
    Seismic Refraction and Wide-Angle Reflection Surveys
Working at the LITHOPROBE Seismic Processing Facility. LITHOPROBE's director discusses a seismic cross section with fellow scientists at U.B.C. Schematic of seismic refraction technique. Refraction seismometer (cylinder) and recording seismograph being deployed during field program.
Gravity and Magnetic Studies
Portable refraction seismograph and field service unit used for setting all recording parameters, retrieving seismograph memory plus analysis and display of data in the field. A basic field service unit includes a portable computer, printer, and satellite-tuned clock. It serves up to 30 portable refraction seismograph instruments. Gravity method of exploration. Gravity data express denisty variation in the crust. Magnetic method of exploration.,

Electromagnetic Geophysics

Heat Flow and Geothermal Studies

Geological Mapping
An aeromagnetic map covering the Kapuskasing Structural Zone. Electromagnetic measurements reveal conductive (yellow) and resistive (greens) subsurface layers. Geological field work provides the foundation for all other LITHOPROBE surveys. Geological map of eastern Labrador, showing the Grenville and Makkovik Provinces. The bottom inset shows major structural zones in relation to other LITHOPROBE transects studying the Grenville Province elsewhere. The top inset illustrates correlations between the Makkovik Province and the related Ketilidian Mobile Belt of Greenland.
Structural Geology
Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology
Stratgraphy and Sedimentology
Structural geology captures the dynamics of a geological setting. Thin section of an olivine mineral. Olivine is one of the main constituents of the upper mantle. Stratigraphic cross section of sedimentary basin formation. Boreholes drilled by oil companies have yielded a wealth of data from the WCSB.
A triangular (or ternary) diagram used to plot the chemical analysis of igneous rocks. Minerals used in high-precision geochronological dating. Biotites (black mica) to left, zircons (clear) in centre, and hornblende (greenish) to right. Computer plot of results of U-Pb analyses of zircons from a granite in N. Labrador. Each ellipse represents one analysis with its associated errors. An example from Newfoundland. Isn example from Newfoundland. Isotopic results from late orogenic and post-orogenic, granitoid plutons. The yellow dots show where plutons were derived from the mantle (i.e. very deep). The black dots show where plutons were formed by melting of crustal (deep) and supra-crustal (shallow) rocks.
A mass spectrometer allows precise measurements of isotopes contained in minerals. Their ratios determine their age.      

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